Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Zeiformes
(Dories) > Zeniontidae
Etymology: Zenion: Particle zen, derived from zao = to give life . More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 180 - 700 m (Ref. 74511). Deep-water; 44°N - 28°S, 98°W - 94°W
Western Indian Ocean: Tanzania and off Delagoa Bay, Mozambique. Western Central Pacific (Ref. 40499). Southeast Pacific: Nazca and Sala-y-Gomez (Ref. 50546). Western Atlantic: Antilles and Venezuela (Ref. 26340). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Eastern Atlantic. South China Sea (Ref.74511).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115012); max. published weight: 37.00 g (Ref. 115012)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found over mud or sand-mud bottom (Ref. 26999). Reported to up to 700m depth (Ref. 89996).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1986. Zeniontidae. p. 441. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4256)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.3 - 12.8, mean 11.4 °C (based on 5 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5703 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00481 - 0.03145), b=2.99 (2.77 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.8 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .