Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 150 m (Ref. 6943), usually 20 - 75 m (Ref. 6943). Subtropical
Eastern Atlantic: Cape Blanc and Levrier Bay, Mauritania south to Angola. Two records in the Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5476); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5476)
Coastal species (Ref. 27000). Prefer hard or rocky substrate, also trawled on sandy or muddy bottoms (Ref. 6943). Solitary or comes in pairs when adults, possibly gregarious when young. Feed on bottom invertebrates (Ref. 6759). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Maugé, L.A., 1990. Chaetodontidae. p. 837-840. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6943)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.2 - 27.9, mean 25.3 °C (based on 112 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.01123 - 0.04674), b=3.00 (2.83 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .