Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 370 m (Ref. 54713). Tropical; 42°N - 19°N, 111°E - 141°E (Ref. 54713)
Western Pacific: Japan and the East China Sea. Reported from Hong Kong (Ref. 12083).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2272)
Tasty food fish (Ref. 559).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bykov, V.P., 1983. Marine Fishes: Chemical composition and processing properties. New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. 322 p. (Ref. 4883)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.1 - 23.2, mean 18.4 °C (based on 218 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00901 - 0.02662), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.28 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=1).
Prior r = 0.49, 95% CL = 0.32 - 0.73, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .