Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Trachichthyiformes
(Roughies) > Trachichthyidae
Etymology: Hoplostethus: Greek, hoplon = weapon + Greek, stetho, stethion = brest; literal = to prick a little breast (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 100 - 1175 m (Ref. 9942). Subtropical; 68°N - 78°S, 98°W - 167°W
Cosmopolitan. Atlantic. Indian and Pacific oceans and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.5, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 42.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4784); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 26316)
This species is reported to be pelagic in Maul, 1990 (Ref. 3583); however, Schneider, 1990 (Ref. 2683) indicates the species is demersal. Found over muddy bottom (Ref. 26999).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maul, G.E., 1990. Trachichthyidae. p. 620-622. In J.C. Quéro, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3583)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.5 - 15.9, mean 10.3 °C (based on 1342 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00833 - 0.01511), b=3.05 (2.96 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.11; tmax=11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .