Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Zeiformes
(Dories) > Parazenidae
(Parazen) > Cyttopsinae
Etymology: Cyttopsis: Greek, kyttaros, kytos = a convex cavity + Greek, opsis = appearance. More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 150 - 730 m (Ref. 9563), usually 330 - 690 m (Ref. 7251). Deep-water
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to southeastern USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to western Caribbean (Ref. 7251); northern coast of South America (Ref. 5217). Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay round the South African coast to Natal. Indian Ocean: Somalia (Ref. 30573) and off the south-west coast of India. Western Pacific: off Japan, eastern Australia (Ref. 7300) and New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6953); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683)
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 29 - 30. Rosy pink and silvery in color; pelvic fins reddish with black membranes (Ref. 4253). Mouth large, oblique, highly protrusible; anteriorly directing spine in a series on supraorbital; pelvic fin spine soft, flexible; pelvic fin soft rays long, the longest reaching 5th anal ray when depressed; 1st anal spine large and immovable, 2nd one small and moveable (Ref. 13608).
Occurs on the continental slope (Ref. 75154). Bathypelagic (Ref. 5951). Forms schools. Feeds on other fishes and swimming decapod crustaceans (Ref. 4968).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1995. Additions and corrections for the 1995 impression. p. v-xv. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Revised Edition of Smiths' Sea Fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 11228)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6 - 14.1, mean 9.3 °C (based on 1039 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.8125 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00644 - 0.04481), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .