Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m. Tropical; 25°N - 6°N
Indian Ocean: found along the coasts of Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Andaman Islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 108711); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2830); max. published weight: 97.66 g (Ref. 127364)
Found in shallow coastal waters, estuaries, lagoons, and sometimes entering tidal rivers. Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). Feed on small algae, diatoms, and other organic matter. Spawn at sea. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Sold fresh in markets; the roe is highly valued.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, J.M., 1984. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 2830)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00763 - 0.01985), b=2.92 (2.79 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 170 [46, 891] mg/100g; Iron = 0.987 [0.517, 1.775] mg/100g; Protein = 17.2 [15.8, 18.7] %; Omega3 = 0.508 [0.214, 1.226] g/100g; Selenium = 13.6 [5.9, 33.7] μg/100g; VitaminA = 23.2 [6.6, 74.5] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.43 [0.90, 2.22] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.