Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical
Eastern Central Pacific: from the southern Gulf of California (La Paz) southward to Oaxaca, Mexico, including the Islas Tres Marias.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11482)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Malacoctenus zonifer and Malacoctenus sudensis with number of symphysial pores increasing with size, but more pores are present in M. zonifer at any given size;
Malacoctenus zonifer differs from M sudensis by the following characters: gill rakers 9-12, usually 10-11 (vs. 10-13, usually 11-12) and, total anal-fin elements 19-22, usually 21-22 (vs. 20-23, usually 22). Several aspects of coloration are better developed in M. sudensis where it has dark pigment on the interspinal membrane of the first dorsal fin, spots on the gular fold, two spots ventrally on the opercle and spots on the anal fin of males, all of which are lacking or weakly expressed in M. zonifer (Ref. 82814).
Feeds on invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson, 1994. Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p. (Ref. 11482)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00394 - 0.02111), b=3.06 (2.86 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 359 [198, 768] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.52 [0.94, 2.61] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [17, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.254 [0.139, 0.458] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.9 [14.4, 62.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 53.2 [17.4, 155.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.17 [1.50, 3.13] mg/100g (wet weight);