Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 28016), usually 1 - 12 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 30°N - 6°S, 19°E - 112°E
Indiant Ocean: from East Africa, Seychelles, Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Reunion, Mauritius and Rodriquez Island; East Andaman Sea off Thailand and Myanmar; Bali, Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1419); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2871); max. reported age: 2.50 years (Ref. 42001)
(total): 13 - 14;
soft rays: 9 - 10;
Vertebrae: 23. Coloration highly variable; influenced by substrate's color and mood of the fish. Upper greenish to sandy brown, paler below. Color patterns extend to the fins. Spines slender, pungent and venomous. Preopercular angle 88°-98°; cheeks with few scales; midline of thorax without scales between pelvic ridges. Long flap of anterior nostril shortens with increasing age.
Inhabits inshore areas and inner reefs (Ref. 9710). Often occurs among seagrasses to browse on 'aufwuchs'. Forms schools. A food fish that is occasionally poisonous (Ref. 4537).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 28.9, mean 27.5 °C (based on 745 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01035 - 0.03056), b=2.94 (2.79 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=2.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43.7 [18.5, 104.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.93 [0.41, 1.95] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.9, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.275 [0.126, 0.621] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.1 [8.4, 54.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27 [7, 99] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.71 [0.78, 3.69] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.