Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Dactylopteriformes
(Flying gurnards) > Pegasidae
Etymology: Eurypegasus: Greek, eurys = long + Greek, Pegasus, pege = springs of Ocean near which Medusa was said to have been killed; the winged horse, sprung from the blood of Medusa (Ref. 45335); papilio: From the Latin word 'pipilio' meaning butterfly. More on author: Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 80 - 291 m, usually 80 - 115 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 28°N - 20°N
Eastern Central Pacific: known only from the Hawaiian Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 583)
soft rays: 5;
Vertebrae: 19. Body color olivaceous to yellow olive dorsally and laterally; whitish ventrally; 3 indistinct, double bands of light red on carapace and tail. Species with 3 pairs of dorsolateral body plates; 4 pairs of ventrolateral body plates; a pair of deep pits on dorsal surface of head; 8 (rarely 9) mobile tail rings; concave suborbital shelf, eyes visible in ventral view. Dorsal and ventral ridges of rostrum almost equally expanded with laterally directed denticles. Medial spine on dorsal surface of last tail ring posteriorly directed.
Inhabits moderately deep water (Ref. 1418). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Larvae and juveniles are often collected in neuston and plankton nets, and midwater trawls (Ref. 1418).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Palsson, W.A. and T.W. Pietsch, 1989. Revision of the Acanthopterygian fish Family Pegasidae (Order Gasterosteiformes). Indo-Pac. Fish. (18):38 p. (Ref. 1418)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.8 - 13.7, mean 6.4 °C (based on 6 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7656 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .