Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Triacanthidae
Etymology: Triacanthus: Greek, tres, tria = three + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 9804). Tropical; 20°C - 30°C (Ref. 13614); 38°N - 28°S, 48°E - 154°E
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf eastward through Bay of Bengal to eastern Australia, northward to southern Japan and China.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9804); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3540)
Spiny dorsal-fin membrane very dark between first and third spines, and usually equally dark between third and fifth spines. Outline of head from base of first dorsal-fin spine to above eye an even slightly convex curve or almost a straight line (Ref 9804).
Inhabits sandy or muddy flat in coastal and estuarine waters. Feeds on benthic invertebrates. Sold fresh in markets. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Minimum depth range from Ref. 121772.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Matsuura, K., 2001. Triacanthidae. Triplespines. p. 3905-3910. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9804)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1448 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7578 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00402 - 0.02726), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .