Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
() > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Umbrina: Latin, umbra, -ae = shadow, in the sense of phantom; due to its quick movements (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 300 m (Ref. 4780), usually 150 - 200 m (Ref. 26999). Subtropical; 50°N - 28°S
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to South Africa (Ref. 4373), including the western Mediterranean. Western Indian Ocean: east coast of Africa (Ref. 3490); probably also in the Arabian Sea under synonyms capensis (non Pappe ?), sinuata Day and striata Boulenger.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593)
Found in mud and sandy bottoms of the shelf and upper slope (Ref. 4780), 14° to 15° C (Ref. 36731). Feed on small shrimps, worms and other bottom invertebrates (Ref. 4780). Sold fresh and dried salted (Ref. 3490).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.9 - 19.7, mean 15 °C (based on 71 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00540 - 0.01471), b=3.14 (3.00 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.26).
Prior r = 0.55, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .