Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 3688); depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 4781), usually 30 - 50 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 45°N - 17°S, 19°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Strait of Gibraltar to Angola, including the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.7, range 17 - 23 cm
Max length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); max. published weight: 11.6 kg (Ref. 40637)
Generally found in hard bottoms (rocks and rubble), the older individuals in the deeper part of the range, the young in inshore areas. Feed mainly on bivalves and also on crustaceans and fish. Sexual maturity at 2 years old. Spawning migration occurs parallel to the coast with intermittent spawning between spring and autumn over soft bottoms in shallow waters (Ref. 3688).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
A different diagnosis of sexual pattern may arise for this species brought about by geographical variations (Ref. 103751). Also Ref. 41163.
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 13.3 - 25.2, mean 17.5 °C (based on 97 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.01695 - 0.02348), b=2.95 (2.91 - 2.99), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.28; tmax=10; tm=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.1 [17.3, 70.3] mg/100g; Iron = 1.04 [0.30, 2.90] mg/100g; Protein = 19.7 [18.1, 21.3] %; Omega3 = 0.253 [0.138, 0.453] g/100g; Selenium = 39 [17, 80] μg/100g; VitaminA = 7.42 [1.82, 28.09] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.592 [0.297, 1.251] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.