Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 500 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 57°N - 5°S, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay (occasionally further north) and southwestern Mediterranean to the Strait of Gibraltar and the Gulf of Guinea, possibly even further south.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.8  range ? - 21 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
Inhabit various types of bottom but prefers gravel or rubble from 20 to about 500 m depth, abundance varying with depth according to the latitudes. Feed mainly on crustaceans and fish but also takes mollusks (Ref. 4781).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes