Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 135 m (Ref. 89972), usually 1 - 12 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 38°N - 36°S, 19°E - 124°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Marquesan and Ducie islands, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef, Lord Howe, and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602)
Inhabits sand and silty reefs (Ref. 58652). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Common in shallow lagoons, reef flats, and sheltered seaward reefs. Feeds on fishes and ocacionally on crustaceans (Ref. 89972). Active at night (Ref. 5213). Caught with artisanal gear. Solitary (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cressey, R.F., 1986. Synodontidae. p. 270-273. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4055)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 2080 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00488 - 0.01076), b=3.13 (3.01 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 48.9 [17.7, 98.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.499 [0.175, 1.082] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.2 [12.8, 17.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.0667 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.5 [15.0, 84.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 109 [28, 353] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.915 [0.529, 1.379] mg/100g (wet weight);