Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 100 m (Ref. 28016). Tropical; 45°N - 30°S, 30°E - 165°E
Indo-West Pacific: east coast of Africa (Mozambique, Oman) and the Red Sea (a Lessepsian migrant, Golani et al, 2011) to the Philippines; north to Japan (including Okinawa), Thailand (Gulf of Thailand); south to Malaysia (Sabah).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424)
soft rays: 14. This species of the Equulites elongatus group is distinguished by the following set of characters: eye diameter 82-137% postorbital head length; distance from pelvic-fin insertion to center of anus 35-50% of the distance from pelvic-fin insertion to anal-fin origin; scales above lateral line 8-13, below 12-19; dorsolateral body with large dark blotches rarely forming ring marks (0-2) and a few dark spots (0-5) that are smaller than a half of pupil diameter; the tips of neural and hemal spines of fourth preural centrum is less expanding, distal expansion ratios of neural and hemal spines of the fourth preural centrum 2.1-3.9. Colour of the head and ventrolateral body almost uniformly silvery white; snout tip blackish; upper posterior margin of the operculum pale yellow; dorsolateral body silvery brown with scattered dark blotches; pectoral axil dark and pectoral fin pale yellow; black lines along the caudal-fin rays, the posterior margin of caudal fin dark while other fins are colourless (Ref. 120651).
Inhabits shallow waters, usually in schools near the bottom. Feeds mainly on small crustaceans, polychaetes and algae (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Suzuki, T. and S. Kimura, 2017. Taxonomic revision of the Equulites elongatus (Günther 1874) species group (Perciformes: Leiognathidae) with the description of a new species. Ichthyol. Res..64(3):[1-14]339-352. (Ref. 120651)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.1 - 28.4, mean 27.3 °C (based on 743 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00843 - 0.02981), b=3.14 (2.98 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.80-1.40).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100).