Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 293 m (Ref. 5951). Subtropical; 46°N - 37°S, 98°W - 14°E
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada south along the U.S., Bermuda, the Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and along South America to Uruguay (Ref. 114078). Eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands, Morocco to Angola (Ref. 109259) including Madeira (Ref. 3592).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.9, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 36.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124459); max. published weight: 364.20 g (Ref. 124459)
Found on sand or mud bottoms. Associated with Sargassum (Ref. 26340). Adults feed on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5377). Edible but generally rejected by fishers (Ref. 5377).
Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Monacanthidae. p. 1061-1066. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion