Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Canthidermis: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, derma = skin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Mitchill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 60 m (Ref. 36453), usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; 43°N - 17°S
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to South America. Eastern Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks, Ascension, Cape Verde and St. Helena (Ref. 5288); Sao Tome Island (Ref. 34088).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); max. published weight: 6.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 23 - 25. Soft dorsal and anal fins very elevated anteriorly, the longest rays nearly as long as head; caudal fin double-emarginate, brownish gray with a large dark brown spot at base of pectoral fins (Ref. 13442).
Common near drop-offs of seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Occasionally in shallow water. Solitary or in small groups in open water. Often associated with Sargassum (Ref. 9710). Feeds mainly on large zooplankton. Minimum depth reported from Ref. 13121.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.7 - 28.6, mean 27.3 °C (based on 770 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02455 (0.01542 - 0.03907), b=2.91 (2.78 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.4 [15.6, 83.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.55 [0.34, 1.12] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.116 [0.060, 0.236] g/100g ; Selenium = 41.7 [21.9, 90.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 30.6 [9.3, 99.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.914 [0.600, 1.408] mg/100g (wet weight);