Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Atractoscion: Greek, atraktos, arrow + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 15 - 200 m (Ref. 3593), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 3593). Tropical; 14°N - 28°S
Western Indian Ocean: off Mozambique and South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 65 - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4373); common length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); max. published weight: 25.0 kg (Ref. 4373)
Found in coastal waters, over sand muddy bottom. Juveniles enter estuaries. Adults feed on pelagic fishes at night. Often caught with Umbrina canariensis. Feeds on pelagic fish such as mackerel and horse mackerel (Ref. 36731). Marketed fresh, flesh highly esteemed (Ref. 9772).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14 - 26.5, mean 18.7 °C (based on 131 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00445 - 0.01869), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.27; tm=5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61.4 [31.7, 117.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.639 [0.337, 1.075] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.1, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.227 [0.109, 0.410] g/100g ; Selenium = 86.9 [41.1, 168.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.5 [9.1, 85.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.707 [0.465, 1.130] mg/100g (wet weight);