Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 190 m (Ref. 27549). Temperate; 52°N - 36°N, 77°W - 50°W
Northwest Atlantic: eastern Newfoundland and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to Virginia in USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 72462)
Commonly found in harbors and shallow coastal waters. Move to deeper water in winter. Adults attach their eggs near the base of a sponge to use as a spawning bed (Ref. 34819, 41075). Benthic; feeds on crustaceans, molluscs, sea squirts, squids and fishes (herring, mackerel, smelt, sand lance and silversides (Ref. 5951)) (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Adults attach their eggs near the base of a sponge to use as a spawning bed (Ref. 34819, 41075).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans