Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Menticirrhus: Latin, mentum = beard, chin + Latin, cirrus = curly. More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - ? m. Subtropical; 43°N - 11°S
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to southern Florida in USA and Gulf of Mexico to Yucatan in Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Adults occur usually in shallow coastal waters over sand to sandy mud bottoms. Common in the surf zone and in estuaries. Juveniles may enter tidal rivers and creeks of low salinity. Feed mainly on worms and crustaceans. An excellent food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.2 - 27.6, mean 24.2 °C (based on 232 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00493 - 0.01469), b=3.01 (2.86 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 136 [68, 274] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.72 [0.96, 3.35] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [17.9, 22.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.699 [0.338, 1.454] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.2 [14.8, 83.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.04 [2.69, 32.26] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.05 [0.68, 1.75] mg/100g (wet weight);