Teleostei (teleosts) > Perciformes/Cottoidei
(Sculpins) > Cottidae
Etymology: Cottus: Greek, kottos = a fish (Ref. 45335); carolinae: Named after Miss Caroline Henry, friend of the species describer (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Temperate; 39°N - 32°N
North America: upland streams in Mississippi River basin from New River drainage in West Virginia and Virginia, across central Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois to Ozark Mountain drainages in Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas and Oklahoma in the USA; south to Mobile drainage in Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 9.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Inhabit gravel and rubble riffles of headwaters, creeks and small rivers. Also occur in springs and their effluents (Ref 5723, 10294). Young feed on aquatic insect immatures of many kinds, including caddisflies, mayflies, and midge larvae; adults on stonefly nymphs and maturing stages of other insects (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00301 - 0.01449), b=3.17 (2.98 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).