Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 50550). Temperate; 66°N - 34°N
North Pacific: Sea of Japan to the Bering Sea and to San Simeon, central California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Occurs in intertidal areas and to 37 m depth, but more common in subtidal areas (Ref. 2850). Often found among algae (Ref. 2850). Adults inject eggs into the tissue near the gastral cavity of a sponge to use as a spawning bed (Ref. 34818).
External fertilization with internal insemination (Ref. 37516). Adults inject eggs into the tissue near the gastral cavity of a sponge to use as a spawning bed (Ref. 34818).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 2.9 - 14, mean 7.1 °C (based on 520 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7539 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00276 - 0.01257), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=234-404).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).