Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 37 - 300 m (Ref. 5217), usually 73 - 180 m (Ref. 7251). Subtropical; 37°N - 24°N
Western Atlantic: North Carolina and northern Gulf of Mexico to southern Florida in USA; northern coast of South America (Ref. 5217).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits offshore waters, mostly from 73-180 m depth. Minimum depth from Ref. 26912.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion