Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 36 - 118 m. Tropical; 30°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: Florida and northern Gulf of Mexico in USA to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 11 - 12;
soft rays: 5. Occipital pit present; adults with three to four spines on part of preorbital overlapping maxillary; supplemental preopercular spine present; no dark spots on inner basal part of pectoral fin; generally pale in color with some dark pigments (Ref. 13608).
Inhabits offshore waters.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 19.5 - 27.2, mean 24.5 °C (based on 115 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00637 - 0.02726), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 58.9 [29.5, 131.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.599 [0.321, 1.621] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.9, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.238 [0.107, 0.634] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.7 [17.9, 81.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 136 [47, 370] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.31 [0.91, 1.87] mg/100g (wet weight);