Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 75 - 440 m (Ref. 7251). Tropical; 32°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: Georgia, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil; not occurring in the West Indies.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115012); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 556.60 g (Ref. 115012)
Found on soft substrate. Have a thick glandular tissue on posterior margin of fin spines which is believed to be venomous (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 13.6 - 23.5, mean 18.8 °C (based on 99 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00674 - 0.01956), b=3.03 (2.88 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100).