Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 50 - 200 m (Ref. 47690). Subtropical; 32°N - 30°S, 30°E - 169°E
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, as far south as Durban in South Africa, to southern Japan and northeastern Australia, east to New Caledonia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47690); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47690)
(total): 3 - 4;
soft rays: 30 - 33. This species is distinguished by its very deep body, almost triangular, extremely compressed; sharp-edged breast; greatest body depth below lateral line at least 4 times greater than greatest body depth above lateral line; anal fin very long-based, commencing at point of insertion of pelvic fins, uniformly very low; dorsal spines (X in juveniles) reducing in number with increasing age. Colour of body with upper sides deep metallic blue, the rest silvery, a row of round to ovoid, dark slaty-blue spots above and below lateral line, sometimes a few additional spots above and below these rows; pelvic fins with a trace of blue, other fins hyaline or slightly dusky (Ref. 47690).
Inhabits deeper coastal waters near the bottom on both the continental shelves and around major island groups; sometimes in river estuaries (Ref. 47690, 48635). Found in schools (Ref. 47690, 48635). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5213). Readily dries in air without salting (Ref. 4375, 48635). Caught in trawls and by beach seine, but mainly by trawling, often incidentally. Marketed fresh and dried (Ref. 47690). Minimum depth from Ref. 30573.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1984. Menidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3465)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 19.8 - 27.6, mean 24.4 °C (based on 503 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.00843 - 0.05176), b=3.03 (2.82 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.19-1.2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 27.4 [11.6, 61.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.484 [0.271, 0.908] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [18.2, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.205 [0.114, 0.368] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.5 [7.8, 37.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 43.9 [10.1, 182.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.868 [0.548, 1.324] mg/100g (wet weight);