Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 60 - 1700 m (Ref. 58426), usually 100 - 900 m. Polar; 81°N - 43°N, 123°W - 61°E
North Atlantic: Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya, Barents and Norwegian seas, the Shetlands, the Faeroes, Iceland and south-eastern coasts of Greenland; also known occasionally in northern North Sea and Skaggerak and south to Bay of Biscay. Western Atlantic: Arctic, from Prince Patrick Island to Sable Island off Nova Scotia and Grand Banks in Canada (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 20.0 kg (Ref. 7251)
Coloration bluish-black with indistinct spots on the sides. Flesh soft and watery (Ref. 35388).
Inhabits offshore waters in midwater; adults also near bottom from 60-970 m, mainly 100-900 m (Ref. 4694). Epibenthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on sea gooseberries, medusas, small fishes, also echinoderms, crustaceans and mollusks (not so hard-shelled) (Ref. 4694). Spawns at great depths (Ref. 44162).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Barsukov, V.V., 1986. Anarhichadidae. p. 1113-1116. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 3. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 4694)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.6 - 7.2, mean 3.4 °C (based on 687 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5938 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00292 - 0.01365), b=3.20 (3.01 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 13.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08-0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 4.97 [1.79, 19.10] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.188 [0.077, 0.509] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.3 [14.2, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.199 [0.106, 0.376] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.2 [11.1, 154.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14 [4, 52] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.49 [0.19, 0.96] mg/100g (wet weight);