Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 48978), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 35388). Polar; 72°N - 43°N, 76°W - 45°E
North Atlantic: Kanin Peninsula southward to La Rochelle (including White Sea, North Sea and Baltic), also Iceland, but not eastern Greenland, Spitzbergen or Novaya Zemlya. Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware Bay, USA (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4693); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 72462)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Ribbon - shaped body with 9 - 13 eye spots along the base of the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Occurs in shallow waters (seashore, tide pools), but descends (especially in winter) to 100 m or more. May remain out of water under rocks or seaweeds (Ref. 31184). Feeds on small crustaceans, polychaetes, mollusks and fish eggs. The eggs are laid on the sea bed in a large clump, which is closely guarded until hatched (Ref. 9900). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Spawning occur in November - January . Female lays 80-200 eggs in a large ball under a stone or in an empty bivalve shell (Ref. 35388).
Male and female coil around the egg ball (Ref. 58332).
Makushok, V.M., 1986. Pholididae. p. 1124-1125. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4693)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion