Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 48978), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 35388). Polar; 72°N - 43°N, 76°W - 45°E
North Atlantic: Kanin Peninsula southward to La Rochelle (including White Sea, North Sea and Baltic), also Iceland, but not eastern Greenland, Spitzbergen or Novaya Zemlya. Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware Bay, USA (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4693); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 72462)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Ribbon - shaped body with 9 - 13 eye spots along the base of the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Occurs in shallow waters (seashore, tide pools), but descends (especially in winter) to 100 m or more. May remain out of water under rocks or seaweeds (Ref. 31184). Feeds on small crustaceans, polychaetes, mollusks and fish eggs. The eggs are laid on the sea bed in a large clump, which is closely guarded until hatched (Ref. 9900). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Spawning occur in November - January . Female lays 80-200 eggs in a large ball under a stone or in an empty bivalve shell (Ref. 35388).
Male and female coil around the egg ball (Ref. 58332).
Makushok, V.M., 1986. Pholididae. p. 1124-1125. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4693)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 4.3 - 11.9, mean 9.5 °C (based on 692 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00209 (0.00111 - 0.00395), b=3.17 (3.00 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1-3; K=0.18-0.29; tmax=12).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 53.9 [23.0, 117.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.47 [0.23, 0.93] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.4 [15.2, 17.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.515 [0.217, 1.187] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.7 [6.7, 47.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.2 [3.8, 76.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.744 [0.467, 1.217] mg/100g (wet weight);