Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 94 m (Ref. 50550), usually 30 - 46 m (Ref. 48978). Polar; 83°N - 40°N, 136°E - 42°W
Western Atlantic: Arctic Ocean to southern Labrador, Canada and western Greenland. North Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559) and Alaska (Ref. 11366).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Entirely subtidal (Ref. 48978). Benthic; feeds on crustaceans and worms (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): -1.4 - 2.8, mean 0 °C (based on 367 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00162 (0.00068 - 0.00388), b=3.19 (2.99 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).