Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 55 m (Ref. 26912). Subtropical; 46°N - 45°S, 98°W - 16°W
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada through most of the West Indies; along coasts of Gulf of Mexico and South America (Ref. 26938) to Mar del Plata, Argentina. Absent from the Bahamas (Ref. 26938). Replaced by Selene dorsalis in the eastern Atlantic. These two species have not been adequately studied and may prove to be conspecific. Known to occur in Mauritania (Ref. 5377).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 4.6 kg (Ref. 26340)
Adults usually found near the bottom from inshore waters to at least 54 m depth, but may form schools near the surface (Ref. 5217). Juveniles are found on muddy bottoms brackish estuaries and in coastal marine waters (Ref. 5217). Adults feed on small fishes and crustaceans. Good food fish and marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 12 - 27.9, mean 24.4 °C (based on 656 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.01145 - 0.01450), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4.5; assuming tm=2-3).
Prior r = 0.54, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.81, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 72.3 [42.4, 149.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.18 [0.66, 2.21] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.6, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.381 [0.226, 0.665] g/100g ; Selenium = 30 [16, 56] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.4 [3.0, 26.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.828 [0.587, 1.182] mg/100g (wet weight);