Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 36 m (Ref. 55313). Temperate; 42°N - 31°N, 80°W - 71°W (Ref. 55313)
Western Atlantic: USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 59.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 9.1 kg (Ref. 7251)
Cleithral spine with venom gland (Ref. 57406). Found inshore, at depths to 36 m (Ref. 55313).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.3 - 24.3, mean 16.9 °C (based on 92 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00548 - 0.02637), b=3.04 (2.84 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .