Teleostei (teleosts) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Embiotocidae
Etymology: Rhacochilus: Rhakos, -eos = big tear + Greek, cheilos = lip (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Agassiz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 41°N - 27°N, 125°W - 113°W
Eastern Pacific: Mendocino County in northern California, USA to central Baja California in Mexico, including Guadalupe Island (off northern central Baja California).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Adults usually found in rocky areas, also in kelp and near jetties and pilings (Ref. 2850). From Surf zone to 50 m (Ref. 96339). Often in schools (Ref. 2850). Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 12 - 18.7, mean 14.6 °C (based on 12 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00831 - 0.04372), b=2.97 (2.77 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 77.7 [43.5, 133.6] mg/100g; Iron = 1.03 [0.60, 1.72] mg/100g; Protein = 18.7 [17.7, 19.6] %; Omega3 = 0.252 [0.160, 0.405] g/100g; Selenium = 26.3 [13.5, 51.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 7.54 [2.31, 24.23] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.67 [0.48, 0.97] mg/100g (wet weight);