Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 92 m (Ref. 9710), usually 5 - 25 m (Ref. 9761). Subtropical; 35°N - 18°N, 100°W - 64°W (Ref. 55264)
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Bahamas and off southern Florida, USA to the Gulf of Mexico, including Yucatan, Mexico (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4858); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3797)
Soft parts of dorsal and anal fins and caudal fins have wide yellow margins. Dark spot on forehead lacks electric blue ring. Juveniles blue, banded, with last prominent band straight (Ref. 26938). The pectorals are blue basally, clear distally, with a broad yellow band separating the two colors; the pelvic fins are light yellow (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles in channels and on inshore reefs (Ref. 9710). Feeds primarily on sponges (Ref. 9710). Small juveniles do well in aquariums once they begin to accept food.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.4 - 27.4, mean 24.6 °C (based on 208 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03162 (0.01614 - 0.06195), b=2.88 (2.71 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.2 [10.6, 42.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.487 [0.280, 0.845] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.151 [0.087, 0.259] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.6 [8.8, 40.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35.5 [8.6, 142.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.782 [0.509, 1.170] mg/100g (wet weight);