Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
() > Mullidae
Etymology: Mulloidichthys: Latin, mullus = soft + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 46 m (Ref. 5227). Subtropical
Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands; rare north of southern Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Inhabits sand, mud and rock bottoms of shallow waters near the coast (Ref. 9322). Often occurs in small schools but may also be solitary. Feeds by digging in the sand with its barbels. Rests on the bottom at night, dramatically changing both color and daytime pattern to reddish blotches (Ref. 5227). Young are pelagic.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.6 - 28.4, mean 24.9 °C (based on 52 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00495 - 0.02116), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .