Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 60 m (Ref. 7251). Tropical; 37°N - 34°S, 98°W - 33°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina, USA to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 57756).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 16. Very high first dorsal fin with a short base (Ref. 26938). Gray with three white-edged dark brown to black bands, the first running vertically through eye, the second from nape across operculum and chest to front of pelvic fins, and the last beginning on first dorsal fin and running to end of caudal fin (Ref. 13442). Third and widest band from tip of high dorsal fin, curving along length of body to tip of tail (Ref. 26938).
Inhabits bays and sounds; also deep coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles sometimes inshore (Ref. 9710). Easily approached (Ref. 9710). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420). Feeds mainly on small shrimps and crabs, but also on polychaete worms and gastropod mollusks (Ref. 13442).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.7 - 28, mean 25.7 °C (based on 274 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00418 - 0.01200), b=3.20 (3.06 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 74.3 [43.5, 152.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.72 [0.44, 1.18] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.8 [18.5, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.145 [0.081, 0.223] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.8 [21.5, 64.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 58.6 [20.0, 173.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.38 [0.90, 2.02] mg/100g (wet weight);