Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Aplodinotus: Greek, aploeides = simplicity + Greek,noton = back; single back in reference to the slighty joined dorsal fins (Ref. 45335); grunniens: grunniens meaning grunting (Ref. 10294). More on author: Rafinesque.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 30 - ? m (Ref. 9988). Subtropical; ? - 32°C (Ref. 12741); 58°N - 15°N, 110°W - 70°W (Ref. 86798)
North and Central America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to northern Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada and south to the Gulf; Gulf Coast drainages from Mobile Bay in Georgia and Alabama through east Mexico to Rio Usumacinta system in Guatemala.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 95.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9988); max. published weight: 24.7 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 13 years (Ref. 72462)
Occur in bottoms of medium to large rivers and lakes (Ref. 557, 10294). Adults feed on aquatic insect immatures such as mayflies (Hexagenia), amphipods, fish (especially shad and young drum), crayfish and mollusks. Larval stages of drum consume larvae of other fishes, while young fishes utilize zooplankton (Ref. 10294). Known to produce sound. L-shaped otoliths are collected as 'lucky stones' (Ref. 557). Utilized fresh and can be pan-fried and broiled (Ref. 9988).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00607 - 0.01808), b=3.21 (3.07 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .