Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 2850), usually ? - 8 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 37°N - 24°N, 124°W - 107°W
Eastern Central Pacific: Santa Cruz in central California, USA to southern Baja California, Mexico; isolated population in the Gulf of California.7
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 56049)
Occur in coastal waters, frequently in rocky reefs and occasionally over sandy bottoms (Ref. 9114); often near kelp beds. Juveniles form schools in littoral pools (Ref. 9114). Feed on crustaceans, mollusks and bryozoans. Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9114).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.2 - 23.3, mean 21.1 °C (based on 116 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00792 - 0.03641), b=3.02 (2.84 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2; tmax=15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .