Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Bramidae
Etymology: Taractes: Greek, taraktes = confusion; for the pletora of names that have been applied to this fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 140 m (Ref. 58302). Temperate; 72°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumglobal: In tropical to temperate waters. Western Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559). Eastern Pacific: Alaska to southern California, USA. Eastern Atlantic: Madeira to Iceland and northern Norway (Ref. 6697); Cape Province, South Africa (Ref. 4388). Western Indian Ocean: southern Madagascar and Natal, South Africa (Ref. 4388); Maldives (Ref. 30829). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6697)
Occurs offshore in warm and temperate waters (Ref. 6697). May spawn widely in the subtropics (Ref. 6697).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, M.M., 1986. Bramidae. p. 633-636. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4388)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.7 - 27.9, mean 16 °C (based on 2326 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .