Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 200 m (Ref. 86942). Subtropical; 42°N - 45°S, 180°W - 180°E
Warm and temperate seas of all oceans. Western Central Pacific: Guam (Ref. 35721). Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Peru (Ref. 2850). Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil (Ref. 7251). Eastern Central Atlantic: Madeira Island (Ref. 74541).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.9, range 11 - 16.8 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5288)
Oceanic species with a strong preference for marlins and sailfish as hosts, but may occasionally cling to other large fishes. Attaches to the body or gill chamber of the host (Ref. 10791). Oviparous. Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 57896).
Oviparous. From collection study observations, a mature pair is often found attached to a single host, most often a billfish, indicative of distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 57896).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.3 - 28.2, mean 25.9 °C (based on 1457 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5352 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00263 (0.00111 - 0.00626), b=3.17 (2.96 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 8,100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100).