Teleostei (teleosts) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); swaini: Named after an active ichthyologist in the late 1800s, J. S. Swain (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Jordan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 36°N - 29°N
North America: Gulf drainages from Ochlockonee River in Georgia and Florida to Mississippi River in Louisiana, and north on Former Mississippi Embayment (east of Mississippi River only) to Kentucky in the USA; in Bear Creek in northwestern Alabama and northeastern Mississippi, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Occurs in shallow rocky riffles, current-swept vegetation in headwaters, creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Feeds on midge larvae, with isopods and immature blackflies, mayflies, hydroptilid and hydropsychid caddisflies, and dragonflies (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00235 - 0.01227), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).