Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Subtropical; 41°N - 26°N
North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from Cape Fear River in North Carolina to Nueces River in Texas, north in Mississippi River basin to central Illinois in the USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 9.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits heavily vegetated ponds, lakes, pools of creeks and small to medium rivers, and swamps (Ref. 205). Usually occurs over mud or sand. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Feeds on midge larvae, other immature insects, and microcrustaceans such as amphipods and cladocerans (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Breed in shallow ponds, lakes or creeks (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.01078 - 0.03072), b=3.13 (2.98 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).