Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12. Temperate; 10°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672); 42°N - 25°N
North America: occurs only in the USA in Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages below Fall Line from southern New York to lower Tombigbee River in Alabama, and south to southern Florida; and above Fall Line in New York and Pennsylvania.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 7.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits vegetated lakes, ponds, quiet sand and mud-bottomed pools and backwaters of creeks and small to medium rivers.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00872 - 0.02508), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).