Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.8 - 7.8; dH range: 10 - 25. Subtropical; 10°C - 22°C (Ref. 12468); 41°N - 29°N
North America: widely distributed in Atlantic Coastal Plain and lower Piedmont drainages from Hudson River in New York to St. Johns River in Florida, USA and in Gulf Coastal Plain drainages of northern Florida and southern Georgia, USA from Suwannee River to St. Marks River.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 14.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Usually occurs over mud and detritus in vegetated sloughs, lakes, and pools and backwaters of creeks and small to medium rivers.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00595 - 0.02544), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100).