Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 9342). Subtropical; 34°N - 9°S, 118°W - 79°W (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Central Pacific: San Francisco Bay, California, USA to Peru and the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); max. published weight: 91.0 kg (Ref. 2850)
soft rays: 10 - 11. Distinguished by the following characteristics: two color patterns, first is brown blotched pattern, grey or greyish green with oblong dark blotches dorsally, forming an irregular maze-like, pale reticulum, second is plain colored pattern is uniform greyish brown, darker fins and edged with white; depth of body contained 2.9-3.1 times in SL; head length 2.6-2.8 times in SL; angular preopercle, with distinct serrate lobe at angle; posterior nostrils notably larger than anterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).
Occurs from mangrove area to over hard bottom of the continental shelf and the slope (Ref. 11035). According to Thomson et al. (1979, Ref. 6852), this species prefers mangrove estuaries. Adults and juveniles occur in shallow water with adults found to depths of 60 m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 19.5 - 28.6, mean 24.6 °C (based on 78 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00429 - 0.02028), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33.8 [13.6, 69.2] mg/100g; Iron = 0.768 [0.417, 1.456] mg/100g; Protein = 18.9 [17.0, 20.6] %; Omega3 = 0.319 [0.193, 0.557] g/100g; Selenium = 30 [15, 61] μg/100g; VitaminA = 14.1 [4.3, 55.2] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.561 [0.392, 0.838] mg/100g (wet weight);