Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 20 - 120 m (Ref. 9342). Tropical; 35°N -
Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to northern Chile.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9342)
Third dorsal spine longest, with well-produced filament; middle rays of upper and lower lobes of caudal fin longest (Ref. 40817).
Forms schools (Ref. 9342). Feeds on plankton (Ref. 9342).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chirichigno, N.F., 1974. Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Peru. Inf. Inst. Mar Perú (44):1-387. (Ref. 5530)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.6 - 26, mean 18.5 °C (based on 54 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00632 - 0.02879), b=3.00 (2.81 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).