Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range 100 - 1000 m (Ref. 1371), usually 300 - 500 m (Ref. 54573). Temperate; 0°C - 4°C (Ref. 1371); 82°N - 37°N, 95°W - 61°E (Ref. 54573)
North Atlantic: Norfolk Canyon and George Bank north to Labrador, Davis Strait, eastern and western Greenland, Iceland, and from the Irish Atlantic slope north to Faeroe Islands, Norwegian coast, to Spitzbergen, and to the Barents Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 54.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 1371)
spines: 0. Snout short, rather strongly pointed; mouth small, inferior. Underside of head almost entirely naked. Pyloric caeca about 19 or 20. Overall color is gray, darker ventrally on trunk; anal fin dark-edged, first dorsal and pectoral fins dusky (Ref. 1371). Front end of dorsal fin spine is serrated (Ref. 35388).
Epibenthic, in deep waters down to 2740 (Ref. 58426). Adults are commonly found in about 300-500 m depth. Temperature preferences appear to range from about 1-4°C, although bottom temperatures below 0°C have been recorded at capture depths. Amphipods predominate in the diet, although polychaetes and various natant crustaceans are also important. Also feed on bivalves, isopods, echinoderms (notably ophiuroids), and ctenophores (Ref. 1371). Batch spawner (Ref. 51846).
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 0.8 - 7, mean 3.2 °C (based on 434 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00398 (0.00249 - 0.00637), b=3.18 (3.04 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 28.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=15; tmax=25; Fec=25,000).
Prior r = 0.32, 95% CL = 0.20 - 0.50, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 12.2 [5.7, 24.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.198 [0.103, 0.362] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.6 [14.5, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.328 [0.147, 0.688] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.3 [13.1, 73.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.5 [3.6, 76.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.546 [0.348, 0.859] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.