Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Fundulidae
(Topminnows and killifishes)
Etymology: Fundulus: Latin, fundus = bottom; a peculiar name for a topminnow, coined for a bottom species of Atlantic coast being "the abode of the fundulus mudfish" (Ref. 45335). More on author: Walbaum.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 1 m. Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 2059); 44°N - 25°N, 95°W - 67°W
Western Atlantic: New Hampshire to northeastern Florida in USA; also in northern Gulf of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
(total): 14-15. Males have 15-20 dark bars on side; females have 2-3 longitudinal stripes (Ref. 26938).
Inhabits bays, estuaries and coastal marshes (Ref. 5723). Feeds on worms, small crustaceans, mollusks and insects (Ref. 93252). Not a seasonal killifish. Is difficult to maintain in aquarium (Ref. 27139).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
May spawn several broods of eggs in a single season (Ref. 38947).
Huber, J.H., 1996. Killi-Data 1996. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Atherinomorpha, Pisces). Société Française d'Ichtyologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, 399 p. (Ref. 27139)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.7 - 24.9, mean 23.6 °C (based on 236 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00259 - 0.01467), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 108 [54, 204] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.472 [0.279, 0.789] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [15.3, 17.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.986 [0.439, 2.166] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.4 [5.2, 37.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.8 [7.2, 90.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.2 [0.8, 1.8] mg/100g (wet weight);