Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - ? m. Subtropical
Eastern Pacific: Santa Ana in southern California, USA to Costa Rica. Range extends to Panama (Ref. 36576). Reported from Peru and Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5530).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 9.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9306)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Adults are found near shore, frequently in coastal bays at or near the surface. Often form small schools. Occasionally penetrate fresh waters (Ref. 9306). Presumably oviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36576). Eggs are attached to spawning substrate via filaments (Ref. 36576).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion