Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 300 m (Ref. 9269), usually 0 - 95 m (Ref. 9269). Subtropical; 34°N - 15°S
Eastern Pacific: Santa Catalina Island, southern California, USA to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Adults inhabit rocky areas, including the intertidal zone. Found on sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 9269). Young individuals feed heavily on crustaceans but as they grow bigger, they consume more and more fish, sometimes catching and eating fishes their own size (Ref. 4930).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 15.7 - 28.8, mean 23.3 °C (based on 270 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100).