Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 27363). Subtropical; 1°S - 46°S, 68°W - 14°E
Eastern Atlantic: known only from larvae collected in the southern Gulf of Guinea from Annobon, Equatorial Guinea to Mossamedes (Moçâmedes), Angola. Western Atlantic: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to San Jorge Gulf, Argentina (Ref. 86990).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 112 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57911)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Pectorals small and fan-shaped (Ref. 27363).
Found in shallow waters of the continental shelf (Ref. 27363). Feeds on fishes, shrimps, crabs and mollusks.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Specimens captured in deep waters of Brazil had ovaries occupying the whole abdominal cavity with scarce adipose tissue and degraded body indicative of semelparity (Ref. 92882).
Smith, D.G., 1990. Congridae. p. 156-167. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4453)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11.8 - 24.9, mean 15.8 °C (based on 168 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00043 (0.00024 - 0.00076), b=3.23 (3.08 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm<5).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 44.1 [26.7, 86.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.851 [0.485, 1.384] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [15.8, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.3 [0.1, 0.8] g/100g ; Selenium = 52.3 [28.1, 102.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.4 [2.2, 24.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.556 [0.410, 0.786] mg/100g (wet weight);